Black Holes – David Martsolf – 1981 - 2014

“The Edge of Infinity” – Dr. Paul Davies, Simon & Schuster 1981

Speaking of a collapsing star reaching the Schwarzschild radius on page 67 Davies notes, “As the surface of the star approaches the critical radius, where it is about to cross the event horizon, this red shift escalates without limit, . . . converting to a black hole . . . . typically in a few millionths of a second.

According to the picture already discussed, that the red shift of light can be viewed as a slowing down of time at the star’s surface relative to a distant place, the fact that the shift grows without limit implies that time on the surface of the collapsing star comes to a halt. As far as the distant observer is concerned (though he cannot see it) events on the star have become frozen in time . . . . . An observer stationed on the star would not notice any slowing down of time. In the millionth of a second that he takes to reach the event horizon (from his frame of reference) all eternity will have passed outside.”

From here Davies predicts the crushing of the star to a singularity, but this may be in error. In 2006, theoretical physicist Abhay Ashtekar applied the theory of loop quantum gravity to the singularity at the beginning of the Big Bang and was able to avoid the singularity, opening the pathway to previous iterations of some type of universe. More recently in 2013, Jorge Pullin and Rodolfo Gambini were successful in applying the same model to the singularities described as at the center of black holes.

Since there is a limit on the speed of light, there may also be a limit to the strength of the force of gravity. At such a limit the force could enter a quantized state of being and not being that could engender an entire new universe of physical realities. It could be possible to build physical structures that could balance these forces with if not a hollow center, a porous one.

As a star collapses the Schwarzschild radius appears only at the exact moment that the gravitational force at any distance from the center of the mass reaches the strength to suspend time for an external observer. For a massive star this may appear at a given moment when all of the mass is not inside the event horizon, since the equilibrium density would not necessarily occur before the Schwarzschild radius appeared.

July 2, 1983

The conventional method of thinking about the Big Bang is of an outlook from our space-time where in the distant past our observable universe sprang from a singularity (2014 – or now from a quantum gravitational explosion) in an as yet undetermined manner.

Another method is to assume that the singularity (2014 – or quantum gravitational structure) as an eternally existing object with unchanging properties into which we are now shrinking. The conventional theory provides only an instant of time for the existence of the singularity after which the expanding physical universe takes over, having emerged by way of it. In the new viewpoint, the singularity (2014 – or quantum gravitational loop structure) always exists with space and time constantly flowing from its infinite gateway.

In our observable universe there is no absolute frame of reference, and yet one does exist. As we observe the receding galaxies we look further back in time until we come to a point where in all directions matter is moving away so rapidly that time and space distort. Matter becomes infinitely massive, and we come to an event horizon beyond which we cannot see. The physical description from our observable universe is that we lie at the center of a spherical shell composed of singularity stuff, which is expanding away from us a light speed. A pressing question to be answered at this juncture is whether the 3K black body background radiation can be accounted for in this model (Penzias & Wilson, Bell Labs, 1964).

Mention is always made in conventional approaches to the Big Bang to the fact that the Big Bang did not explode into an empty void, but was the creation of expanding space and time at some discernible concrete instant, which is to say, the universe has an age, a beginning.

This description runs into problems as we observe ever deeper into our outer space. Supposedly, we should be able to gaze back to the day when photons were still locked up inside a mass of atomic nuclei and free electrons. Out beyond quasars discussion founders when attempting to come to grips with this leading edge of space-time, which flows outward from our view point. What lies beyond? What is the boundary?

The only boundary described today between our physical universe and what is unknowable is the singularity. The obvious choice then is to face the evidence and submit that there is the possibility of a universe not only beginning from a singularity, but of one that has since expanded into another singularity. This unpalatable arrangement can be made much simpler by observing that both these singularities could be the same object. Our universe is constantly being formed from and is flowing into the same object, a hollow shell singularity or quantum gravitational loop structure that in our observable universe lies at the limit of our observational capabilities some billions of light years out in deep space.

I constantly reiterate the words “observable universe” because this universe is one of the unfortunate but necessary repercussions of Einstein’s work in relativistic mechanics. The observable universe refers not only to the extant reality we can see with the best instruments, but to all observations of our physical reality at whatever level down to subatomic particles. All are bounded for us by the speed of light. The important concept to remember is that the observable universe is not the real universe. The real universe has infinite rules. In it we may design models where Euclidean geometry can easily transcend Einstein and develop for our space-time bounded minds an absolute frame of reference where infinity is not an outcast.

In this theory (the quantum gravitational loop structure) we do not need to worry about the problem of the appearance and disappearance of singularities or these loop structures. They become eternal fixtures of the observable universe. If we accept the notion of the hollow shell, porous shell, non-surface quantum singularity, then we must realize that in the Euclidean absolute sense, that this shell is a relativistic mirage.

Retaining our local physics while circumventing relativity out in the enormous red shift territory we find that the universe is actually infinite in space-time with no singularity at all. This same Euclidean absolute must also be extended backward to the Big Bang singularity. Absolute space-time meets relativistic space-time at the congruence of singularity with Infinity, the Eternal Present, and the Nothing. This is the nexus of all that exists, does not exist, did exist, did not exist, will exist, and will not exist. And, the loci of these connections exist everywhere at all times.

From the point of view of an observer in a galaxy deemed by us to be nearing the hollow shell quantum singularity, it is both we and they who are nearing this point. While topologically speaking the outer limit of our universe is a singularity, it can be seen that the entire observable universe lies within it. Though it appears that all matter is cascading into this shell, the shell is in fact, non-existent in the Euclidean observer’s sense. It is only in our mortal observer’s view, tied as it is into the Einsteinian relativistic world of observable physical phenomena, that the singularity must appear to exist.

The Black Hole We Live In – Dave Martsolf - April, 2014

One interesting result of experiencing the universe from the (disad)vantage point of a human body circling around our own personal backwater star on this hopefully celestially unknown blue-green oasis is that as we grasp the full meaning of the General Theory of Relativity (and view the universe ONLY through that understanding and no other), we come to realize that each of us live in the exact center of our own personal black hole. What is meant by that? This writer certainly does not wish to give the reader a negative connotation to life. He seeks only to describe the observable outcome of this description of the observable world around us.

In the Einsteinian Universe nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, although the space in which two objects are carried can expand at a rate that will separate the two objects at a speed faster than that of light. While this state of affairs could be deduced by a third observer outside the two-object system, the concept of living at the center of a black hole comes from the observation of someone in either of the two objects relative to the other.

The General Theory of Relativity also predicted the expansion of the universe, a theory turned to fact through the discovery by Edwin Hubble in 1929 of the Red (Doppler) Shift of the light from distant galaxies. This shift in the spectral lines of starlight from those systems meant that the galaxies were moving away from us. Measurement of galaxies at different assumed distances from our own revealed a rate of motion that was proportional to the distance of the galaxy. This meant that the universe was expanding, not only the distance between galaxies, but the fabric of space itself. Refinements in calculations over the years have shown that not only is the universe expanding, but at an ever increasing rate.

Tracing this expansion in a reverse direction finds that all the matter in the universe should have been at one point about 13.8 billion years ago. But, we are going to embark on a different time travel adventure. Since we know the speed at which light travels we can examine what we see in the universe with this feature in mind. If we look at the moon we are seeing it as it existed about 1.2 seconds ago. If we look at the sun (don’t), we see it as it existed about 8 minutes ago. There are such vast amounts of space in the universe that if we look at the next closest star we will be seeing it as it existed over 4 YEARS ago.

Our Milky Way is similar to the Andromeda galaxy in weight, though only half its diameter (we apparently have more than our fair share of dark matter). Images of galaxies fool us because we see pictures where all its billions of stars are all shining at us from about the same distance. And, we are so used to our own personal scale of activity where light seems to make all relations of objects instantaneously related, that we project that local experience onto the grand telescopic image of this object in space. But, this is in many respects illusory. The Andromeda galaxy is about 220,000 light years in diameter, meaning light emitted from a star on one side takes that amount of time to reach the other side of the galaxy’s spiral disk. The Andromeda galaxy is part of our Local Group of galaxies, our closest big neighbor. Yet, at that it is 2.5 million light years away, so we see it as it existed that long ago.

The universe is much bigger than our Local Group. Continuing outward in our view of the cosmos we find that the Red Shifts continue to increase, indicating that the distances and resultant backward time shifts continue to increase until the recession speed approaches that of light speed. Here we find quasars and very early proto-galaxies whose visible light is all shifted into the infrared. Beyond that is the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR or today simply CMB),that appears to emanate as a thermal black body spectrum at a temperature of 2.72548±0.00057 K. Beyond that we cannot see as photons could not escape the original Big Bang until about 380,000 years into our new universe when the energy had cooled enough to permit atoms to form and allow radiation to flow through the interstitial space.

But, the interesting thing is that if you go outside at night and imagine yourself hanging in space, looking out in every direction into the depth of space, you look back in time no matter what direction you look in. If you carry the Big Bang Theory back to it beginning where the universe is described as a singularity you can think of yourself as in the center of this singularity, a point, which by definition has no dimensions.

If you look outward with Einsteinian relativistic glasses you will see matter far away approaching a recession velocity of light speed. Matter approaching light speed becomes infinitely heavy while time dilates (slows down) until time stops. You can think of this reaching a point where all matter becomes so dense that this imaginary shell all around us becomes as the inner surface of a black hole with all matter inside this hole falling outward to reach the shell event horizon. Every point in the universe has this same property to the observer in its center. So, now you know what it is like to live in the center of a black hole.